Database drivers include the following methods to support transactions:

  • startTransaction()
  • commit()
  • rollBack()

It is permissible to start multiple transactions. The commit() and rollBack() pertain to the most recently started transaction. The mef\Db\AbstractDriver (which all included drivers extend) outsources the implementation details to a TransactionDriverInterface object. If a particular implementation cannot support transactions, then some exception will be thrown. Note that these database drivers (extending AbstractDriver) do not have a transaction driver associated with it by default.


The recommended driver to use is NestedTransactionDriver. It supports true nested transactions; e.g., you can roll back an inner transaction but still commit the outer one. This requires underlying support for transactions and save points.

$driver = new mef\Db\Driver\PdoDriver(new PDO('sqlite::memory:'));
$driver->setTransactionDriver(new mef\Db\TransactionDriver\NestedTransactionDriver($driver));


// these changes are saved

// these changes are lost

// these changes are saved



If the database supports transactions, but does not support save points, then the EmulatedNestedTransactionDriver is the best choice. Nested transactions are supported as long as every transaction is committed.

However, if any transaction is rolled back, then the entire transaction is rolled back. This happens when the outermost (first) transaction is closed. If it is attempted to be committed (despite an inner transaction failing), then an exception is thrown and it is rolled back.


The PdoEmulatedNestedTransactionDriver extends EmulatedNestedTransactionDriver to use PDO’s transaction methods (instead of assuming the SQL syntax). It can only be used with PdoDriver.